(Visited 20 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The so-called “scientific method” (if there is such a thing) has undergone dramatic changes throughout history, but there is one constant that can be relied upon: the myth of scientism.Scientism is the belief that the “scientific method” is a disinterested formula that, provided a bias-free scientist follows the steps, is guaranteed to lead to knowledge that progresses toward understanding of nature that invariably improves over time. Philosophers of science, historians of science and sociologists of science know that this simplistic description is a myth. On the 50th anniversary of Thomas Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions this year, and the “Science Wars” that ensued in the decades following its publication in 1962, one would think that scientism went out with logical positivism and vinyl records, but some reporters remain stuck in that groove. A recent example is found on Live Science, where Robert Roy Britt and and Kim Ann Zimmermann provided a definition straight out of the 1950s:Science is a systematic and logical approach to discovering how things in the universe work. It is derived from the Latin word “scientia,” which translates to knowledge. Unlike the arts, science aims for measurable results through testing and analysis. Science is based on fact, not opinion or preferences. The process of science is designed to challenge ideas through research. It is not meant to prove theories, but rule out alternative explanations until a likely conclusion is reached.This definition, followed by a step-by-step “recipe” for the Scientific Method, reveals none of the complexities of real-world science. For instance, not all scientists follow this method, if indeed any do. Different fields of science use different methods. It overlooks tacit knowledge, hunches and social pressures that short-circuit the method. It mentions nothing of the scientific culture or consensus, Kuhn’s paradigms and scientific revolutions. It conflates scientific discovery with scientific understanding, yet it distinguishes facts from theories as if facts cannot be theory-laden. It ignores profound differences between operational sciences (which can be replicated) and origins sciences (which cannot, but rely on inference). And it creates an either-or fallacy that segregates “science” from all other forms of inquiry, some of which are not only just as systematic and logical, but may be even more measurable, reliable, and amenable to knowledge. Those are just a few of the questions that arise from the Live Science article.Even the article’s ending section, “brief history of science,” overlooks the fact that what was considered “knowledge” in the past is often considered foolishness today. Almost everything that was believed about the universe, the earth and life back in 1900 has been debunked. We have no guarantee, therefore, that scientists of the future will not look on today’s “scientific” beliefs as foolishness. The phrase “now we know” is often the prelude to collapse (for an interesting example from geology, read a quote posted by Uncommon Descent).Britt and Zimmermann also neglected to address how scientific knowledge is manufactured. There was nothing about peer review, for instance. Yet even Nature this past week acknowledged that a revolution is underway in peer review with new internet resources that may render traditional print journals obsolete. On June 12, Richard van Noorden explored some of the radical new initiatives like PeerJ (an outgrowth of the inventors of PLoS ONE) that will allow scientists to pay one price for unlimited online publishing. Notice his explosive metaphor:PeerJ is just one of a flurry of experiments, encouraged in part by the gathering momentum of open access, that might shape the future of research publishing. “We are seeing a Cambrian explosion of experiments with new publishing models. It’s going to be an interesting period for the next few years,” says Binfield.The metaphor implies no clear connection between the old way and several radical new ways of publication. This example shows that one aspect of the “scientific method,” peer review, is undergoing a dramatic change before our eyes after decades — even centuries — of standard operating procedure.Another example from Nature confesses that there may be limits to our understanding. Climate change certainly looms large in scientific discussions these days. Just as the latest global climate change conference is concluding in Rio, Maslin and Austin said in Nature June 14 (486, pp. 183–184, doi:10.1038/486183a) that climate models may have reached their limits:For the fifth major assessment of climate science by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), due to be released next year, climate scientists face a serious public-image problem. The climate models they are now working with, which make use of significant improvements in our understanding of complex climate processes, are likely to produce wider rather than smaller ranges of uncertainty in their predictions. To the public and to policymakers, this will look as though the scientific understanding of climate change is becoming less, rather than more, clear….…. Why do models have a limited capability to predict the future? First of all, they are not reality. This is perhaps an obvious point, but it is regularly ignored. By their very nature, models cannot capture all the factors involved in a natural system, and those that they do capture are often incompletely understood. Science historian Naomi Oreskes of the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues have argued convincingly that this makes climate models impossible to truly verify or validate. Surprisingly, they stated that ignorance is no reason for inaction:Scientists need to decide how to explain this effect. Above all, the public and policymakers need to be made to understand that climate models may have reached their limit. They must stop waiting for further certainty or persuasion, and simply act.This statement appears to be naked advocacy for political action in spite of scientific understanding. Regardless of one’s views on human-caused global warming, the quote illustrates powerful influences between politics and science. It also reveals that scientists, like other fallible human beings, are not necessarily bias-free, but are subject to motivations and collective beliefs.Update 6/19/2012: Pallab Ghosh, writing for the BBC News, reported on the growing trend toward open-access journals on the internet, away from traditional subscription-based journals. One of the arguments in favor of open access is that if the public is paying for the research, they ought to be able to read about it. Some scientists are strongly in favor of the movement, seeing it as the democratization of science. “Critics have argued that commercial publishers have made excessive profits from scientific research that has been paid for from public money,” Ghosh wrote. “Critics also say that denying access to publicly-funded research is immoral.” One significant upshot of the trend is that leading journal editors will have less veto power over what gets published, and less control over what kind of research is deemed significant.Don’t ever be fooled into assuming that scientists, and especially science reporters, have been educated out of scientism. Many scientists never took a philosophy of science course. Some of them, influenced by their science professors, were trained to distrust philosophers of science. But the question “What is science?” is not a question of science. It is a question of philosophy about science. Scientists therefore, operating within the scientific culture, are the least qualified to answer the question.It’s time to suggest again two Teaching Company lecture series that explore in detail the philosophical issues of the “scientific method.” Here are links to them. Take note that the courses periodically go on sale.Kasser, Philosophy of ScienceGoldman, Science Wars: What Scientists Know and How They Know ItNotice that neither professors are friendly to intelligent design; they both accept Darwinian evolution. But after listening to them explain the many difficulties in verifying even the simplest scientific concepts, and hearing about the welter of contradictory opinions about what science is, and how misguided previous “now we know” claims have been, no reader of Creation-Evolution Headlines should remain vulnerable to the fallacy of scientism.
2 July 2012The outlook seems to be bright for South Africa’s iron ore miners, with a major new mine recently opened, expansion work begun on the country’s main iron-ore rail line – and global investment bank Morgan Stanley saying SA is set to overtake India as the world’s third-largest exporter of iron ore.In its latest forecasts, Morgan Stanley predicts that South Africa will overtake India this year as the world’s third-largest exporter of iron ore after Australia and Brazil, news agency Bloomberg reported on Friday.According to Bloomberg, Morgan Stanley said it expected South African seaborne exports to total 53-million tons this year, 4-million tons more than its prior forecast, while Indian exports were expected to fall to 41-million tons.In May, the South African government launched a major infrastructure upgrade in the country’s West Coast region, focusing on expanding the iron-ore rail line between Sishen in Northern Cape and Saldanha Bay in the Western Cape.The upgrade forms part of a massive, state-led infrastructure drive aimed at boosting economic growth and job creation in the country.Announcing the programme in February, President Jacob Zuma said the West Coast project would boost the region’s iron-ore transport capacity to 100-million tons per annum, adding that this would help to feed the developing world’s demand for iron ore, which is used in making steel.And last month, Anglo American subsidiary Kumba Iron Ore opened its R8.5-billion Kolomela mine, situated about 80km away from its Sishen mine in the Northern Cape.Noting that Kolomela had delivered its first ore to the Saldanha harbour five months ahead of schedule, Kumba CEO Chris Griffith said at the opening ceremony that the delivery of the Kolomela project was “in line with Kumba’s growth strategy of ramping up South African production to 70-million tons per annum by 2019”.Griffith predicted that existing supply-and-demand dynamics would sustain the prevailing higher prices of iron ore for longer than was anticipated.Anglo American CEO Cynthia Carroll, speaking at the same ceremony, said: “We believe that medium-term replacement of infrastructure in the developed world presents further opportunities for steel, with a bright future ahead for iron ore.”Carroll described the R8.5-billion development of Kolomela as a “vote of confidence” in South Africa.SAinfo reporter
This year’s survey makes for interesting analysis, not simply because South Africa has dropped two places in the rankings to 52 in the world, but for the fact that the country still remains the highest-ranking African country in the survey and third-placed amongst the BRICS economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). There is anticipation and interest for a much needed debate, stimulated by the report, amongst South Africa’s political and business decision-makers around our country’s strengths, weaknesses, comparative risks and opportunities within the BRICS and Next11 countries (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam).As the global economy is still grappling with slow growth and weak recovery, emerging and developing countries are growing faster than advanced economies. Acknowledging that the BRICS countries represent an astonishing 43% of the world’s population, these markets will remain a major source of global economic growth. This situation provides South Africa with both unprecedented opportunities and significant challenges as it looks to capitalise on this global trend. The real challenge is to fully understand South Africa’s position in the context of the BRICS and NEXT11 markets and to maximise the country’s strengths, whilst addressing some significant weaknesses that could hold the country back if measures are not taken to radically improve performance in key areas such as health, education, and labour market efficiency.When benchmarking South Africa against other BRICS nations, there is some positive news for the country. Its competitive strengths can be seen in financial market development where it ranks 1st amongst the BRICS nations and 3rd overall in global terms; business sophistication where it ranks 2nd amongst the BRICS nations and 38th overall; and goods and market efficiency where it ranks 1st amongst the BRICS nations and 32nd in the world. Other strengths included the Legal Rights Index, the Regulation of Securities Exchanges, the Efficacy of Corporate Boards, and the Strength of Auditing and Reporting Standards, where South Africa is placed 1st. Other strong performance areas included Availability of Financial Services (2nd place) and the area of Financing through Local Equity Markets (3rd place).It is worth noting that the high level of confidence shown in South Africa’s financial market development comes at a time when global market confidence is slow to return. The country is undoubtedly benefitting from the size of its economy and from the quality and accountability of its private institutions where it achieves a 2nd place global ranking.However, South Africa’s overall ranking was negatively impacted by its declining performance in critical areas for economic and social developmental growth. If South Africa is to improve its global competitiveness, it will need to significantly address a number of these key weaknesses. On health, South Africa was the worst performing of the BRICS nations and positioned 132nd out of 144 economies. Particular areas of concern remain the number of Tuberculosis cases recorded per 100,000 people in the country, where South Africa is positioned 143rd out of 144 countries. Other equally worrying statistics include the business impact of HIV/Aids where South Africa is positioned 135th, and the country’s HIV prevalence rate which positions it globally in 141st position.In the Life Expectancy Years pillar, South Africa ranks 133rd in the world. These results remain a matter of great concern and will continue to affect the country’s future growth if effective solutions are not found and attitudes are not changed. Ensuring high standards for health and education of the country’s workforce is critical to South Africa’s current and future economic and social development.Where South Africa’s performance decreased signficantly was in the country’s Macroeconomic Environment which saw a drop from 43rd place to 69th place overall. Although South Africa still remains the most competitive economy in sub-Saharan Africa, the country needs to address issues such as its Labour Market Efficiency where the impact of a dramatic drop from 97th place overall in the world to 113th place today is being clearly felt in the local economic environment. The country’s labour productivity reached a 46 year low in July this year with the report identifying restrictive labour regulations and poor work ethic as the most prohibitive factors for doing business in South Africa.The country’s rigid hiring and firing practices ranked it 143rd out of 144 places in the world; its lack of flexibility in wage determination by companies ranked it 140th; and significant tensions in labour-employer relations ranked it 144th in the world. These statistics require vigorous debate and a new approach if South Africa is going to achieve a sustainable growth and development path going forward.Another key area where South Africa can improve is in Quality of its Maths and Science Education, ranking at 143rd place out of 144 countries. The Quality of the Education System ranks 140th and 111th for Internet Access in Schools. If South Africa wishes to nurture a highly qualified workforce to meet the economic challenges of the future and to maximise the potential marketplace growth of the BRICS and NEXT11 nations, it has to rapidly address its failings in the education of its young people. Failure to do so will result in competitor countries taking advantage of South Africa’s weaknesses and boosting their own economies, ultimately at our cost.The negative impact of our education sector failings can also be seen in South Africa’s ranking of 122nd place for the Availability of Scientists and Engineers. This does not bode well for the future of our scientific research institutions. They require a continual pool of well-educated young people with an excellent grounding in maths and science if they are to continue to benchmark themselves in the global scientific marketplace. A world ranking of 143rd out of 144 countries for the Quality of Maths and Science Education is not going to advance South Africa’s ambitions in this respect, without significant intervention. In a positive response by Government, the National Development Plan, recently adopted by Cabinet, looks to address people development and job creation to foster economic growth and prosperity, with a target of creating 11 million more jobs by 2030 through higher investment, capacity building and greater labour absorption. This represents a positive new development in addressing education, training and labour issues moving forward.Finally, the report highlights obstacles to doing business in South Africa due to the high costs of crime and violence, recording a position of 134th in the world rankings with organised crime ranking South Africa at 111th. Government institutions negatively impact on business growth and development – South Africa is ranked 110th in the world for incidences of Favouritism in Decision of Government Officials, and 123rd for the Burden of Government Regulation on business development.On a positive note, if South Africa successfully addresses its challenges and continues to benchmark itself against its fellow BRICS members and the world in order to improve, it can hope for a better ranking in next year’s Global Competitiveness Report. South Africa remains open for business, but with an eye on making the changes needed to make it a genuinely global competitive player.While there may be challenges for South Africa in this year’s WEF report, earlier this year South Africa improved with two positions in the 2012 IMD Global Competitiveness Yearbook. South Africa improved its overall standing from number 52 in 2011, to 50 in 2012. In this year’s IMD competitiveness report the country improved its ranking in government efficiency 29 (up from 32 in 2011); business efficiency 37 (up from 40 in 2011); and infrastructure 54 (up from 56 in 2011).First published in the Sunday Independent, 16 September 2012.
fredric paul Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces The SXSW interactive festival in Austin, Texas, is famously sprawling, crowded, hectic and intense. Not surprisingly, that can make it hard to sum up the impact of the entire event in any meaningful way.But the folks at Mutual Mobile did their best to try in this infographic highlighting attendee tweets covering the best product launches, the most popular panels, the buzziest conversation topics and the snarkiest commentary.I just wish they’d found a way to leave in the barbecue! Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Tags:#social networking#SXSW 2013 What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Top image of keynote speaker Jennifer Pahlka courtesy SXSW/Mindy Best. Related Posts The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology
Online banking may be recently growing in popularity among civilians, but it is a process many service members have been using for years.Reconciliation of shared checking accounts can be near impossible when a family member is away; online banking helps by making transaction history available from anywhere in the world.Many online banking programs are now designed to offer online bill pay, a service that allows customers to set up regularly occurring debits from their account to pay cell phone, car payments and other monthly bills. A tutorial of this process is at www.bankofamerica.com/onlinebanking/learning-center.goAs a PFM, you are probably used to encouraging service members to do their research before opening an account. Bankrate.com is a good resource that lets users comparison shop for bank services, interest rates and check locations before opening an account.Military-affiliated credit unions or banks are financial institutions that understand the military lifestyle. Military credit unions also offer a bevy of services, and are always located on or near military bases. Member-owned credit unions also usually offer higher interest rates on savings accounts and lower rates on loans than shareholder-owned banks. And the Navy Federal Credit Union serves all four branches of the military and offers specialized accounts. Large national bank with locations around the country can also a good strategy, as military families relocate frequently.Online banking does require vigilance to protect user’s account numbers and personal information. Here are 7 steps you can suggest to military families so they may conduct online banking, safely:Make sure computers used for online banking have updated operating systems, web browsers and security features like anti-spyware, anti-malware and firewalls that update automatically.Try not to do online banking in open access wifi spots where Internet access is shared among users. Ask if the network is secure and what security measures are in place.Look at the URL and note the ‘s’. Banking sites should begin with “https” as the “s” stands for “secure.”Use strong, unique passwords with a combination of lower case and upper case letters, numbers and special characters and keep passwords hidden. Do not use any part or combination of your name, birth date, or, common words. Change passwords often and use different passwords for different accounts.Log out after completing online banking and clear the Internet history.Keep account numbers and banking information in a safe, secure location, in the event that passwords are forgotten or online access is otherwise denied.If you get an email from your bank – or from any other company- requesting account numbers or passwords., do not reply. Call the bank for confirmation. A reputable bank will never ask for this information through an email.Get more tips at https://www.consumer.ftc.gov/topics/online-security
By Rachel Dorman, M.S. & Kacy Mixon, PhD, LMFT[Flickr, 20140626-Z-XH589-278 by Mayland National Guard, CC BY-ND 2.0] Retrieved on September 23, 2015In past posts we’ve touched on child outcomes of father involvement and provided resources surrounding the National Fatherhood Initiative. Today’s blog continues the conversation in part one of our military fatherhood blog series featuring a study examining thoughts, feelings and actions of military fathers. Willerton, Schwarz, Wadsworth, and Oglesby (2011) gathered information about military fathers’ involvement with their children . Participants in the study included 71 military fathers from 14 U.S. military installations who attended focus groups within six months after returning from deployment. They were asked questions about their 1) perception of their role as a father, 2) relationship with their children prior to deployment, 3) interactions and communications with their children while deployed, and 4) experiences upon reunification and reintegration into the family after deployment.Researchers categorized their findings into three overlapping domains: thoughts, feelings, and behavior. In this post, we will focus on the findings within the cognitive domain, defined by the researches as the thoughts related to fatherhood. There were seven themes found to arise in this domain, four of which were not related to whether the father was deployed or not. The seven cognitive domains of fatherhood involvement themes were: Responsibility, Evaluation of Parenting, Developmental Awareness, Psychological Presence, Planning, Monitoring and Control, and Reintegration. Below we highlight not only how the researchers conceptualized these domains but also the associated findings.Cognitive (Thoughts) Domains of Fatherhood Responsibility:This theme encompassed the thought process of the father related to providing financial security, being a mentor, providing unconditional love and acceptance, providing a foundation of values, and being a consistent friend to their child. Fathers reported awareness of their mortality when deployed, which led some to convey their parenting philosophies in writing and thoughts to their children.Evaluation of Parenting:[Flickr, Welcome Home, 441st Ordnancey Battalion by William Franklin, CC BY-ND 2.0] Retrieved on September 23, 2015This theme explored how fathers evaluated their parenting. This was done through self-reflection on their role as a parent, how their military career impacted family life, and their desire to imitate or reject their own father’s parenting styles. The study reported that fathers felt guilt for being absent from their children’s lives during deployment, which may have resulted in them feeling conflicted about disciplining their children. Some fathers reported avoiding disciplining their children while away or taking a secondary parenting role. After returning, fathers reported feeling reluctant to discipline their children after being physically absent for so long.Developmental Awareness:In this theme, fathers reported their understanding oft heir children’s developmental challenges. Fathers showed mixed emotions about the possibility of deploying during a children’s infancy, and the children’s inability to understand their absence. Fathers of teenagers recognized their children’s desire for autonomy, but stressed the need to continue to be involved in the teenager’s life.Psychological Presence:This theme was described as the continuous presence of the child in the fathers thoughts. When fathers were not physically with their child, they reported thinking about their child. Fathers reported expressing these thoughts to their child to reassure the child that they had presence in the father’s mind, even though they were not physically together. The study found that, to these participants, good fathering meant ‘being there’ for the child but being a military father sometimes conflicted with this because of the physical separation often required in their military career.Planning:This theme was defined as the forethought fathers put into their parent-child relationship in order for the relationship to be sustained and grow. One example mentioned in the study was fathers who preplanned care packages or gifts for their children, or who planned to preserve and celebrate milestones, such as birthdays, even when they were not physically present. The researchers found the planning theme to demonstrate a father’s strong desire to be a part of their child’s life despite their physical absence.Monitoring and Control:This theme described a father’s efforts to monitor and maintain supervision over their children despite being absent. The study revealed fathers showed concern about discipline and potential misbehavior of children. Fathers expressed having difficulty monitoring their children from far away.Reintegration Challenges:This theme was defined as the process of rejoining the family and assuming a paternal role after being absent. The study reported that the readjustment phase differed in length for fathers. Fathers with younger children showed concern as to whether their children would be able to recognize them. The fathers in the study emphasized the need for children to be allowed to warm up and re-establish emotional connection, Fathers were aware of the possibility that some children may be resentful of their absence.Professionals can use this study’s findings to gain insights into unique barriers that fathers in the military may experience. To learn more about military fatherhood keep an eye out for our next blog, Military Father Involvement: Part 2, where we continue to relay findings from Willerton, Schwarz, Wadsworth, and Oglesby’s (2011) study by focusing on the emotional and behavior domains. Also, mark your calendars for May 29, 2014 from 11am-1pm for our MFLN Family Development webinar focusing on Fathers, Work, and Family Life.References Willerton, E., Schwarz, R., Wadsworth, S., & Oglesby, M. (2011). Military fathers’ perspectives on involvement. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(4), 521-530. DOI: 10.1037/z0024511This post was written by Rachel Dorman, M.S. and Kacy Mixon, PhD, LMFT. Both are members of the MFLN Family Development (FD) team which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network FD concentration on our website, on Facebook, on Twitter, YouTube, and on LinkedIn.
In the face of declining print advertising revenue across consumer and b-to-b publishing, Advanstar Communications’ eye health group is bucking the trend by launching Optometry Times, a tabloid-size glossy serving the optometrist market.“Through our presence in the eyecare market, interaction with our customers, and extensive research, it became apparent there is an inherent need for a superior professional news source for the optometric community,” group publisher Lauri Jorgensen said in a statement. The group also publishes Ophthalmology Times, Ophthalmology Times Europe, and Ophthalmology Times America Latina.Published in print and digital formats, Optometry Times will include editorial content covering clinical, dispensing, practice management, and subspecialty-based findings, Advanstar says.Optometry Times will have a controlled circulation of 33,000, including subscribers in Canada, a spokesperson tells FOLIO:. Launching in March 2009, the magazine will publish nine times per year. Woodland Hills, California-based Advanstar publishes nearly 70 publications and directories, 270 Web sites and digital products, and produces about 150 events.
Pratt has written for Elle, Marie Claire and Maxim magazines. After founding Jane, Pratt left her position as editor in the summer of 2005; she was replaced with ElleGirl founding editor Brandon Holley. Conde Nast then shut down Jane magazine for good, with the August 2007 issue as its last. Since her departure from Jane, Pratt’s whereabouts have supplied a fair amount of media fodder. In 2007, it was rumored Pratt was to start a magazine with Gwen Stefani, lead singer of pop group No Doubt; then in November 2010, Pratt was said to be partnering with fashion blogger Tavi Gevinson on a magazine for “wallflowery teenage girls.” Other names tapped to join xoJane.com include Emily McCombs, former managing editor of Asylum.com and contributing editor of Lemondrop.com, who will act managing editor of xoJane.com. Cat Marnell joins the xoJane.com as beauty editor; previously, she acted as a freelance writer and beauty editor of Lucky Magazine. Other xoJane.com contributors will include Christina Kelly, Laia Garcia and Eric Nicholson. Jane Pratt, former editor-in-chief of Sassy and Jane magazines, has been named editor and creative director of style with SAY Media. In this new role, she will be acting as editor-in-chief for xoJane.com, a new women’s-interest site owned by SAY.
Listen X 00:00 /01:09 Share To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: Teen volunteers standing in line to receive lunch.As soon as I walked into the food bank I saw lines of children spiraled around the lobby.They were getting ready to eat lunch.That’s where I met Yeyri Espinosa.“They gave us watermelon, broccoli and chicken nuggets,” Espinosa says.Children like Espinosa need help getting meals when they aren’t in school.In fact, 60 percent of kids in public school qualify for food assistance programs, but only 12 percent participate.Nicole Lander works with the Houston Food Bank to solve that problem.She says they go into the community to feed children that can’t come to them.“So the Houston Food Bank works with apartment complexes, summer day camps, libraries, to provide meals at those sites, so that where those children are we are meeting them where they are at and providing the necessary nourishment that they need,” Lander says.I walked outside to meet Shonice Reed.She is the head of a summer program in Aldine.She says if it wasn’t for the food bank she couldn’t adequately feed 60 plus kids daily.“It would be very, very difficult,” Reed says. “And even if we did or were able to it would probably not be…it would be minimal.”The Houston Food Bank is serving meals at 150 sites in nine counties.