Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The latest beef trade data for November shows continued improvement in beef exports. November beef exports were 260.7 million pounds, up 2.7% over exports in November, 2016. Beef exports have increased year over year each month in 2017 for the first 11 months of the year. For the year-to-date, beef exports are up 13% over one year ago.Beef exports to the five major destinations are each up for the year-to-date. Exports to Japan are up 27.6% year over year. Japan is the largest U.S. beef export market and accounts for 29.5% of total exports for the year-to-date. Second largest is South Korea, up 6.1% through November and representing 16.6% of total exports. Mexico is the third largest beef export market, up 7.5% for the year-to-date and accounting for 14.7% of beef exports. An 11.1% year-over-year increase in beef exports to Hong Kong makes it the fourth largest export market, slightly larger than No. 5 Canada. Hong Kong accounts for 11.1% of beef exports with Canada at 10.9%. These five markets represent 82.8% of total beef exports for the first 11 months of 2017.There is much interest in the market potential for U.S. beef in China since access was achieved in 2017. Monthly beef exports to China are still very small but appear to be growing sporadically. In November, beef exports to China were 1.97 million pounds, making China the 10th largest U.S. beef export market. This level was slightly less than beef exports to the Philippines and represented 0.75% of total November beef exports.The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service has projected that China will import 2.26 billion pounds of beef in 2018. At the current level, U.S. beef exports to China would represent roughly 1% of Chinese beef imports. If the U.S. were to increase beef exports to China tenfold to a 10% market share, it would make China the fifth largest beef market for beef exports and add roughly 10% to total U.S. beef exports. However, growth this rapid seems unlikely in 2018. Such a level may be more feasible in three to five years. Still, it is difficult to anticipate how markets will evolve and growth could happen more quickly than is apparent now.Total U.S. beef exports are projected to increase another 2.5 to 3.5% year over year in 2018 to a new record level. This is expected to include some growth in exports to China but the total contribution of beef exports to China is likely to remain limited in the near term. Longer term, there is great potential for U.S. beef in China.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest NOAA and its research partners are forecasting that western Lake Erie will experience a significant harmful algal bloom (HAB) this summer.This year’s bloom is expected to measure 7.5 on the severity index, but could possibly range between 6 and 9. An index above 5 indicates blooms having greater impact. The severity index is based on bloom’s biomass — the amount of algae — over a sustained period. The largest blooms occurred in 2011, with a severity index of 10, and 2015, at 10.5. Last year’s bloom had a severity index of 3.6, while 2017‘s was 8.0.Lake Erie blooms consist of cyanobacteria, also called blue-green algae, that are capable of producing the liver toxin microcystin that poses a risk to human and wildlife health. Such blooms may result in higher costs for cities and local governments that need to treat drinking water, prevent people from enjoying fishing, swimming, boating and visiting the shoreline, and harm the region’s vital summer tourism economy. These effects will vary in location and severity due to winds that may concentrate or dissipate the bloom.“Communities along Lake Erie rely upon clean, healthy water to support their community’s well-being and economic livelihoods,” said Nicole LeBoeuf, acting director of NOAA’s National Ocean Service. “This forecast provides timely and trusted science-based information to water managers and public health officials so they can better anticipate blooms, mitigate impacts and reduce future outbreaks.”The size of a bloom isn’t necessarily an indication of how toxic it is. For example, the toxins in a large bloom may not be as concentrated as in a smaller bloom. Each algal bloom is unique in terms of size, toxicity, and ultimately its impact to local communities. NOAA is actively developing tools to detect and predict how toxic blooms will be.This year, the lake temperature has remained relatively cool due to the higher-than-average rainfall in the region, so the bloom is not expected to start until late July when the water temperature reaches 65 to 70 degrees F. This contrasts with 2018, when exceptionally warm weather at the beginning of June caused an early start. Calm winds in July, especially in western Lake Erie, tend to allow the algal toxins to concentrate, making blooms more harmful. The bloom typically peaks in the western part of the lake in September. Most of the rest of the lake will not be affected.“This extremely wet spring has shed light on the movement of nutrients from the land into Lake Erie,” said Christopher Winslow, Ph.D., director of Ohio Sea Grant and Stone Laboratory. “Despite the predicted size of this year’s bloom, portions of the lake will be algae free during the bloom season and the lake will remain a key asset for the state. Ongoing research continues to help us understand bloom movement and toxin production, and remains vital to providing our water treatment facilities with the tools, technology and training they need to keep our drinking water safe.”The Lake Erie forecast is part of a NOAA ecological forecasting initiative that aims to deliver accurate, relevant, timely and reliable ecological forecasts directly to coastal resource managers and the public. In addition to the early season projections from NOAA and its partners, NOAA also issues HAB bulletins twice a week during the bloom season.NOAA continues to expand the use of satellite data into its Lake Erie Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast System, which is helping improve the accuracy of bloom forecast products. The data comes from the European Union’s Copernicus Sentinel-3 satellite, which has instruments that measure coastal water color, and have proven to be especially useful for detecting and tracking algal blooms. NOAA is also continuing to work with its research labs and academic partners to refine and improve the models used to develop the forecasts.“This spring brought regular, heavy rainfall to the Maumee River watershed which would normally carry a lot of nutrients into the lake,” said Richard Stumpf, Ph.D., NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science’s lead scientist for the seasonal Lake Erie bloom forecast. “However, due to the amount of rain this year, farmers were unable to plant their fields which reduced the nutrient concentration. That combined with higher than normal lake levels, presents an opportunity to test the accuracy of our models.”Nutrient load data for the forecasts came from Heidelberg University. The various forecast models are run by NOAA’s NCCOS, the University of Michigan, North Carolina State University, LimnoTech, Stanford University, and the Carnegie Institution for Science. Field observations used for monitoring and modeling are done in partnership with NOAA’s Ohio River Forecast Center, NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, NOAA’s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, NOAA’s Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research, Ohio Sea Grant and Stone Laboratory at The Ohio State University, University of Toledo and Ohio EPA.
Soumyajit Ghosh kept India’s table tennis challenge alive as he moved into the second round of the main draw while an error-prone Ankita Das made a first round exit in the women’s single event of the 2012 London Olympics at the ExCel centre here on Saturday. The 19-year-old Ghosh, playing in his first Olympics, beat Brazilian Gustavo Tsuboi 4-2 (11-9, 14-12, 7-11, 12-10, 5-11, 12-10) in a keen contest that lasted nearly 40 minutes.Ghosh showed his attacking prowess and began in style by winning the first two games. But Tsuboi came back strongly to take the third game at 11-7 when Ghosh gave away some easy points.The Indian, however, managed to win the fourth extended game at 12-10 only to lose the fifth game as the Brazilian ran up a 4-0 lead.From there the game was going one way as Ghosh was struggling to put the ball back across. This helped only his opponent’s cause as Ghosh was at least two points behind the Brazilian all the time until the latter went from strength to strength from there to shut Ghosh out.Ghosh, unwilling to give in, put his best foot forward in the sixth game and led narrowly at 6-4 after the Brazilian had levelled at 3-3. The lead kept changing hands with both the paddlers attacking with beautiful returns and good topspin smashes.They were level at 7-7 and for the first time Gustavo went up at 8-7 before Ghosh restored parity at 9-all. Though the Brazilian went 10-9 up, Ghosh made it 10-all and then clinically finished him with two straight points to seal the match.advertisementGhosh was happy about his second round entry but said that he shouldn’t have allowed his opponent any room in the third game which allowed him a semblance of comeback.”I should have pushed him hard, but he was good. My shots and serves worked well today. I am happy I have progressed well,” said Ghosh, who will take on Matiss Burgis of Latvia in round two.Earlier, Ankita Das made a mess of her match against Spain’s Sara Ramirez to exit in the first round. The Indian teenager made far too many mistakes against the Spaniard and yet managed to win a game off her in a match that lasted 30 minutes in the round of 128.The Siliguri girl lost 9-11 8-11 7-11 11-8, 2-11. Ankita had earlier received a bye in the preliminary round.
zoomImage Courtesy: Eni Marine services company Smit Lamnalco has been awarded a 10-year contract with additional extension options by Coral FLNG to provide integrated marine services to the first Mozambique floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) terminal.The development marks the first terminal services contract award for the Mozambique offshore LNG developments.The contract value for Smit Lamnalco amounts to around USD 200 million and services will commence early 2022.For the delivery of its services, the company will deploy three new 95 ton bollard pull tugs to provide escort, berthing and unberthing services to LNG carriers at the FLNG facility. A new offshore support vessel will be utilized to provide logistical and marine services support.Coral FLNG is a consortium of ENI, ExxonMobil, CNPC, Kogas, Galp Energia and ENH. The FLNG terminal is located some 80 kilometers offshore Palma Bay and operates in a water depth of 2,000 meters.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Provided by CORDIS New Way of Measuring ‘Reality’ of Virtual Worlds Could Lead To Better Business Tools World drug usage is growing significantly every year. So is drug trafficking: Although the value of this market is difficult to calculate, experts evaluate it at approximately USD $400 billion. The amount of work this implies for investigators is mind-bending. It also means that, to be effective in their jobs, these investigators need to be well-trained in various disciplines, as well as have the means to cooperate with their peers in other countries. The LAW-TRAIN (Mixed-reality environment for training teams in joint investigative interrogation-Intelligent interrogation training simulator) project aims to fill existing gaps, with a virtual investigation training system jointly developed by universities, governments and relevant companies.”We know that training by role-playing is very beneficial. But doing it with a team of senior law-enforcement personnel from different European countries is very difficult: all are very busy and located in different places,” says Prof. Sarit Kraus, coordinator of the project for Bar Ilan University in Israel.Thanks to LAW-TRAIN, investigators will soon benefit from a virtual reality training platform that allows them to remain in their country while interacting with other team members across Europe. Each training session consists of four phases: individual preparation, where the trainee receives information about the case; joint preparation, where the trainee can exchange information and shape a joint strategy with his or her peers; investigative interview, where one or two trainees get to interview the virtual suspect in the presence of an equally virtual lawyer; and debriefing/evaluation. The use of virtual reality (VR) is focused on phase three and makes use of the Oculus Rift headset.”Recruiting a person to play the role of the suspect is difficult, so LAW-TRAIN provides a virtual suspect that the team can interview,” Prof. Kraus explains. “Besides, we provide various tools for the trainers: LAW-TRAIN supports many scenarios and enables the creation of new ones. It provides statistics on the trainees’ performance and includes a virtual trainer who can comment on the trainees’ performance and any deviation from the European ethical guidelines online.”These aspects of LAW-TRAIN make for as many different modules, all developed by project partners and mediated by an exchange server. Each module was, of course, developed in close cooperation with end-users. “They love it,” Prof. Kraus enthuses. “The system was presented at the MILIPOL conference to dozens of end-users who were enthusiastic and are now awaiting commercialisation.” The system will be available on various platforms. All it requires for working is a fast local computer and a secure Internet site for activities such as video conferences and information analysis. Before LAW-TRAIN makes it to the market, the team intends to continue testing the system with end-users and improving its modules until the project comes to an end in April 2018. “We are also looking for even more innovation beyond the goals set in this project, hoping to develop them as well in the future,” Prof. Kraus says. Since LAW-TRAIN has been designed as a generic engine, the development of scenarios for other types of illegal activities as well as other cross-border teamwork training is very likely. Explore further Citation: Virtual reality training to help catch drug trafficking (2018, February 9) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-virtual-reality-drug-trafficking.html More information: www.law-train.eu/
Volkswagen drops Audi chief accused of diesel fraud This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further The Audi fine closes one dieselgate chapter for VW, but it’s not in the clear yet Citation: Audi to pay mega fine in VW’s latest dieselgate fallout (2018, October 16) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-audi-mega-fine-vw-latest.html © 2018 AFP In a statement, Volkswagen said high-end manufacturer Audi had agreed to pay an 800-million-euro ($927 million) fine issued by Munich prosecutors.”Audi AG has accepted the fine” for “deviations from regulatory requirements in certain V6 and V8 diesel aggregates (motors) and diesel vehicles”, the group said.In their own communique, Munich prosecutors confirmed their so-called “administrative proceeding” against Audi was now “closed.”VW admitted in 2015 to building so-called “defeat devices” into 11 million cars worldwide, in a massive cheating scandal dubbed “dieselgate”.Software allowed vehicles to appear to meet emissions rules under lab conditions, while in fact spewing many times more harmful gases like nitrogen oxides (NOx) on the road.Tuesday’s fine brings the total costs to Volkswagen from dieselgate to more than 28 billion euros since 2015—most of that in penalties, buybacks and refits in the United States.VW paid a one-billion-euro penalty to Brunswick prosecutors in June over its own-brand vehicles.The fines leave just sports car subsidiary Porsche still facing an “administrative” diesel case among the group’s companies.And while the June fine flowed into a total of 1.6 billion euros paid out over dieselgate in the second quarter, the car giant reported profits up 3.4 percent year-on-year between April and June, at 3.3 billion.Relieved investors welcomed the Audi news, with Volkswagen shares rebounding from an initial drop to gain 2.5 percent at 148 euros by 12:50 pm (1050 GMT).Managers on the hookDespite Tuesday’s agreement, other probes against individual managers and executives from the VW group remain open.Targets include former chief executives Martin Winterkorn and Matthias Mueller, present VW boss Herbert Diess and supervisory board chairman Hans Dieter Poetsch.At Audi itself, former chief executive Rupert Stadler was removed from his post by VW earlier this month.Prosecutors had jailed him in June, saying this was necessary to stop him trying to influence witnesses in his case over fraud and issuing false certificates.In a Brunswick court case, investors are pursuing Volkswagen with claims totalling some 9.0 billion euros over the shares’ 40-percent plunge in value in the days after “dieselgate” was unveiled.They say executives should have informed them sooner of the risks to the group.And a similar case with a potential billion-euro price tag is underway in Stuttgart against holding company Porsche SE, which owns a controlling stake in VW.Meanwhile the German government has opened a route for car owners to launch collective cases against the manufacturers, with a first one expected for early November.Reshaping industryThe dieselgate fallout is far from confined to Volkswagen alone.German car industry stalwarts like BMW or Mercedes-Benz parent Daimler have also become the targets of official probes, while French-owned Opel was confronted with a new investigation on Monday.What’s more, tough new emissions rules are squeezing carmakers to reduce their fleets’ output of both greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and harmful NOx.A new EU emissions testing scheme known as WLTP has slowed deliveries of new cars, slashing registrations by 30.5 percent in September.And drivers of older diesels face looming bans from many German city centres as the country scrambles to meet EU air quality targets.”The current campaign against individual mobility and thereby against cars is reaching existential scale,” VW chief executive Herbert Diess complained to a component makers’ conference Monday, business daily Handelsblatt reported.In a study seen by the same paper, the Center of Automotive Management commented more drily that “the fat years for the car industry are over” as a new environment of trade wars and tougher emissions rules bites into sales and margins. Auto giant Volkswagen cleared a new hurdle in its “dieselgate” scandal Tuesday, paying a hefty fine to close a German investigation into subsidiary Audi, but the group is not yet in the clear over its years of emissions cheating.
Dubious recordThe Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee has retrieved one of the plane’s black boxes—the flight data recorder—but is yet to locate the cockpit voice recorder. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Indonesia’s National Transportation Safety Commission chastised Lion Air over its safety culture A Lion Air jet that crashed last month should have been grounded over a recurrent technical problem and never permitted to make the fatal flight, Indonesian authorities said Wednesday in a report that took aim at the carrier’s poor safety culture. Boeing issues advice over sensors after Indonesia crash Black box data showed the plane also had an airspeed indicator issue on multiple earlier flights, investigators said.Lion must take steps “to improve the safety culture” and ensure “all the operation documents are properly filled and documented”, the transport agency said.Despite a dubious safety record and an avalanche of complaints over shoddy service, the budget carrier’s parent Lion Air Group, which also operates Batik Air and Wings Air, has captured half the domestic market in less than 20 years of operation to become Southeast Asia’s biggest airline.Indonesia’s aviation safety record has improved since its airlines, including national carrier Garuda, were subject to years-long bans from US and European airspace for safety violations, although the country has still recorded 40 fatal accidents over the past 15 years.The report stopped short of making any recommendations to Boeing but the US planemaker has come under fire for possible glitches on the 737 MAX—which entered service just last year.The APA, a US airline pilots union, said that carriers and pilots had not been informed by Boeing of certain changes in the aircraft control system installed on the new MAX variants of the 737.”I am really surprised if Boeing has not shared all the flight performance parameters with pilots, unions, and training organisations,” University of Leeds aviation expert Stephen Wright told AFP before the report was released, adding that “a deliberate omission would have serious legal ramifications”Several relatives of the crash victims have already filed lawsuits against Boeing, including the family of a young doctor who was to have married his high school sweetheart this month.Lion Air Flight JT610 plunged into the sea less than half an hour after taking off on a routine flight to Pangkal Pinang city.Authorities have called off the grim task of identifying victims of the crash, with 125 passengers officially recognised after testing on human remains that filled some 200 body bags. Explore further © 2018 AFP Citation: Lion Air jet should have been grounded before fatal flight, Indonesia says (2018, November 28) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-11-lion-air-jet-grounded-fatal.html The Boeing 737 MAX vanished from radar about 13 minutes after taking off from Jakarta on October 29, slamming into the Java Sea moments after it had asked to return to the capital.The preliminary crash report from Indonesia’s transport safety agency did not pinpoint a definitive cause of the accident, which killed all 189 people on board, with a final report not likely to be filed until next year.But investigators said that Lion Air kept putting the plane back into service despite repeatedly failing to fix a problem with the airspeed indicator in the days leading up to the fatal flight.Its second last flight was from Denpasar in Bali to Jakarta.”During (that) flight, the plane was experiencing a technical problem but the pilot decided to continue,” Nurcahyo Utomo, aviation head at the National Transport Safety Committee, told reporters. “The plane was no longer airworthy and it should not have kept” flying, he added.The findings will heighten concerns there were problems with key systems in one of the world’s newest and most advanced commercial passenger planes.Investigators have previously said the doomed aircraft had problems with its airspeed indicator and angle of attack (AOA) sensors, prompting Boeing to issue a special bulletin telling operators what to do when they face the same situation.The report confirmed that initial finding, saying the plane’s data recorder detected an issue with the AoA.It also said the plane’s “stick shaker”—the steering-wheel like handles in front of the pilots that vibrates to warn of a system malfunction —was “activated and continued for most of the fight.”An AOA sensor provides data about the angle at which air is passing over the wings and tells pilots how much lift a plane is getting. The information can be critical in preventing an aircraft from stalling. The ill-fated Lion Air 737 MAX plunged into the Java Sea less than half an hour after taking off
Court orders bail for Nissan executive linked to Ghosn case Ghosn will be able to make his first public statement at a brief hearing on Tuesday, after his lawyers used an obscure article of Japan’s constitution to demand an explanation for his detention. What will happen in court?The hearing is “a dialogue between the lawyer and the judge, and the prosecutor is not required to be present,” said Yasuyuki Takai, a former investigator at the unit that arrested Ghosn.The judge is likely to give a brief explanation for Ghosn’s detention, and the Constitution mandates that the accused be permitted to speak as well.However there is no allotted time for his comments, and the judge could require Ghosn to read a prepared statement rather than give off-the-cuff remarks. In theory he is free to say what he wants until the judge tells him to stop, said Takai. “He can wear what he wants, but he’ll be handcuffed until the entrance of the courtroom,” he added.He will not, however, be permitted to speak to reporters, the general public or family members in court.”This hearing will have no bearing on the rest of the case,” Takai said. “There’s no chance that Ghosn’s release will be ordered tomorrow.”What is Ghosn accused of?Prosecutors are investigating three separate lines of enquiry:— He is accused of under-reporting his salary by around five billion yen ($44 million) between 2010 and 2015 in official documents sent to shareholders.— He is accused also of under-reporting his salary by a further four billion yen between 2015 and 2018.— He is further accused of trying to transfer 1.85 billion yen in personal investment losses during the financial crisis to Nissan. He is also accused of wiring company funds to a Saudi associate who put up collateral for him in the investment scheme.Authorities have so far only pressed formal charges over the first accusation.Ghosn reportedly denies all the allegations.Why is he still in prison?Under Japanese law, a suspect can be held for weeks, or even months, as prosecutors probe different allegations.After the initial arrest they have 48 hours to question the suspect. They can then apply for two consecutive 10-day extensions. After a maximum of 22 days they must either press formal charges, release the suspect on bail or come up with new allegations.Ghosn was initially held until December 10 as prosecutors investigated the first allegation against him. They then formally charged him, kicking off a two-month period of pre-trial detention that is renewable.But prosecutors also simultaneously re-arrested him on the second set of allegations, restarting the 22-day clock.A court rejected a further extension of that set—raising the possibility of Ghosn’s release on bail—but in another twist, prosecutors slapped the tycoon with a third set of allegations, restarting the whole process.The case has sparked criticism of the Japanese legal system, especially from overseas.What happens next?The detention period for the third allegation against Ghosn expires on January 11, by which time prosecutors must decide whether to charge him, re-arrest him on new allegations or allow him to apply for bail.Even if prosecutors do not level new allegations, the former Nissan chief could remain in jail in pre-trial detention.If prosecutors charge him with either of the outstanding allegations that would also restart the pre-trial detention clock.If no new allegations are levelled against Ghosn he could apply for bail. His alleged accomplice and former right-hand man at Nissan, Greg Kelly, successfully won bail on December 25 on the condition he stays in Japan. © 2019 AFP Citation: Ghosn to appear in court: what happens next? (2019, January 7) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-ghosn-court.html Explore further Carlos Ghosn will finally get his day in court The case of auto tycoon Carlos Ghosn has gripped Japan and the business world since his stunning arrest in November, and now he is finally getting his day in court. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
SHARE SHARE EMAIL police Move ushers in police reforms The Supreme Court passed today a slew of directions on police reforms in the country and ordered all states and Union territories to not appoint any police officer as acting Director General of Police (DGP).A bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra also directed all the states to send names of senior police officers to the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) for being considered as probable candidates to be appointed as DGPs or Police Commissioners as the case may be.The UPSC, in turn, will prepare a list of three most suitable officers and the states will be free to appoint one of them as police chief, the bench, also comprising A M Khanwilkar and D Y Chandrachud, said.The bench also said that endeavour should be made that a person, who had been selected and appointed as DGP, has reasonable period of service left.The apex court also ruled that any rule or state law on the subject of appointment of police officers “will be kept at abeyance”. The bench, however, granted liberty to the states, which have made laws on police appointments, to move before it seeking modification of its order.The directions came on a plea of the Centre seeking modification of the judgment rendered in the Prakash Singh case on police reforms. The court was hearing the Centre’s plea seeking modification of one of its directions, which were part of its historic 2006 verdict on police reforms, recommending steps like a fixed two-year tenure for DGPs.Earlier, the apex court, on September 8 last year, had agreed to hear a clutch of pleas claiming that its historic 2006 verdict on police reforms, recommending steps like fixed tenures for DGPs and SPs, has not yet been implemented by states and Union territories.BJP leader Ashwini Kumar Upadhyay had sought urgent hearing on his interim plea saying the directions passed by the 2006 verdict have not been implemented by authorities concerned. He has also sought the implementation of the Model Police Bill, 2006, which was drafted by a panel headed by former Attorney General Soli Sorabjee.The apex court, deciding the PIL filed by two former DGPs Prakash Singh and N K Singh in 2006, had given a slew of directions, including setting up of a state security commission to ensure that the government does not exercise unwarranted influence on the police. It had said the appointment of DGPs and police officers should be merit-based and transparent and officers like DGPs and Superintendent of Police (SP) should have a minimum fixed tenure of two years.The court had recommended separation of police functions of investigation and maintaining law and order. It had ordered setting up of a Police Establishment Board to decide and make recommendations on transfers, postings, promotions and other service-related matters of police officers of and below the rank of DSPs. It had also ordered setting up of a Police Complaints Authority in each state to look into complaints against officers of and above the rank of SP in cases of serious misconduct, including custodial death, grievous hurt or rape in police custody.A National Security Commission needed to be set up at the Union level to prepare a panel for selection and placement of chiefs of the Central Police Organisations with a minimum tenure of two years, the apex court had ordered. Contempt pleas alleging non-implementation of these directions are still pending. Published on July 03, 2018 judiciary (system of justice) 0 COMMENTS SHARE COMMENT