Another in our series of extraordinary air services features a day with Indonesia’s Susi Air which provides vital air links to hundreds of remote communities.The video, below, taken by a Susi Air pilot features services from Nabire in Papua to outlying villages perched on the side of rugged mountains.The runways are also typically up hill and then to add to the mix slope from side to side. And throw in a pig or two on the runway not to mention bad weather and you have some challenging flying and a great video.Susi Air was launched in 2004 with two aircraft and now has 49.Enjoy!!See Susi Air’s safety rating
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Todd NeeleyDTN Staff ReporterOMAHA (DTN) — Ethanol margins have seen significant improvement since Aug. 1, as plants have been cutting production costs, and ethanol prices have been on the rise.A number of ethanol plants have scaled back production during the past year in response to tough market conditions.DTN’s hypothetical Neeley Biofuels 50-million-gallon plant in South Dakota continues to reflect an easing of market pressures that have been hammering producers in 2019. Margins for plants still paying debt, however, continue to be in the red.The plant this week reported a 19-cent loss per gallon of ethanol produced, with debt service included. It is a major improvement from our update in September when the plant recorded a 34-cent loss. The plant was even deeper in the red as of Aug. 1, 2019, recording a loss of 43.9 cents per gallon.Most ethanol plants are not paying debt, however. Without debt, Neeley Biofuels would be making a 13-cent per-gallon profit, compared to a 3-cent loss in our previous update.The margin improvement was fueled by a spike in the ethanol rack price received by the plant from $1.53 in September to $1.65 for this update. The plant paid a higher price for corn in this update at $3.87 per bushel based on the Chicago Board of Trade futures price, the plant paid $3.74 in September.In addition, the price received for dried distillers grains fell from $130 a ton to $125 for this update.DTN Analyst Rick Kment said efforts by ethanol companies to cut production costs have helped to improve the ethanol market.“Ethanol margins have improved moderately through the month of October following lower overall production costs as corn prices have eroded nearly 10 cents from October highs seen near the last couple of months,” he said.“Ethanol futures prices continue to shift higher and lower based on changing weekly inventory levels, but the pullback in production over the last couple of months has started to cause some underlying support through the market, limiting the tight connection of cash ethanol trade with futures trade at this point. It is expected that corn and ethanol prices will continue to move in a moderate pattern as harvest continues with increased focus on not only the quantity of corn in the 2019 harvest, but the quality of corn in many areas where weather concerns have been a major factor all year long.”It has been a long year for the ethanol industry.Since July 2018, ethanol margins have been deeply in the red. Neeley Biofuels reported a 22-cent-per-gallon net profit on July 6, 2018. By Sept. 20, net profits sank to 8 cents per gallon. By Oct. 16, 2018, the plant reported a net loss of 34.5 cents. Margins hit what was then a low in December, as the hypothetical plant reported a net loss of 37.9 cents. The plant has since had losses topping 60 cents at times during the past few months.In 2006, DTN established Neeley Biofuels in DTN’s ProphetX Ethanol Edition as a way to track ethanol industry profitability. Using the real-time commodity price data that flows into the “corn crush” in ProphetX, and some industry-average figures for interest costs, labor and overhead, DTN is able to track current profits. It also tracks how much Neeley Biofuels would make or lose under an infinite number of “what-if” scenarios.DTN uses industry-average figures from Iowa State University economist David Swenson. Included in the figures are annual labor and management costs, transportation costs, debt-servicing costs, depreciation and maintenance costs. Although Neeley Biofuels is paying debt-service and depreciation costs on its plant, many real plants are not in debt.Also, it should be noted the calculations include all other costs, such as chemicals and yeasts, electricity, denaturant and water. While DTN uses natural gas spot prices for these updates, many ethanol plants lock in prices on the futures market, so they are not as vulnerable to natural gas market volatility.Todd Neeley can be reached at [email protected] him on Twitter @toddneeleyDTN(BAS/ SK)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
If you’re lucky enough to have a garage, you already know it can be used for more than keeping your car out of the snow. As Kent Jeffery explains in a Q&A post at GreenBuildingAdvisor, garages also are useful for car and equipment repairs, and for storing garden vegetables, cans of paint and anything else a spouse may not want in the house.But in order for a garage to serve those purposes, the temperature has to be above freezing — and for much of the country that means a source of heat.Jeffery is in the midst of a house construction project, but already is thinking ahead to what his heating options might be for the garage. He’d like to keep a temperature of 45°F with an occasional boost to 65°F while he’s working on a project.The options he’s considering include a direct-vent natural gas heater, electric resistance heat, a ductless minisplit heat pump, an unvented natural gas heater, or a portable heater used only when he needs it.Any suggestions? That’s the topic for this Q&A Spotlight. His 1989 house is anything but superinsulated, so WD added some insulation to the access doors, put clear plastic over the windows, and added 2 inches of polyiso foam insulation to the moveable garage doors (not an easy task).“The result was a garage that was noticeably warmer in cold weather and cooler in warm weather,” Jeffery writes. “It’s about 5°F warmer than ambient during cool weather. I’ve used the garage for winter construction since then and wore a jacket but didn’t need additional heating.”The bottom line, he adds, is that “I had little or no justification for a heater.” If Jeffery’s garage is going to be superinsulated like the rest of the house, he may find that the last option (heat only with a portable heater when it’s really necessary) is worth a try.That’s essentially the approach also adopted by Nick T. in Minnesota. He recently added insulation in the garage attic, and at least in mid-November was enjoying temperatures 30 degrees above outside ambient air.When he needs heat, Nick uses an electric infrared heater plus a box fan in the door between the garage and house. His high-efficiency furnace does most of the work. The no-heat optionWriting from the Chicago area, GBA reader WD tells the tale of a neighbor who installed a fancy gas-fired furnace in his three-bay garage but then found he rarely uses it. Maybe that’s because an attached garage picks up enough residual heat from the house, as WD found in his own case. RELATED ARTICLES A radiant floor with a direct-vent water heaterChuck Jensen decided to heat his 24 foot by 26 foot detached garage in Climate Zone 6b with a radiant floor system consisting of PEX tubing buried in the concrete slab.“For the heat source I used the smallest on-demand Rinnai propane direct-vent [water heater] available,” Jensen says. “It is set up with a Taco pump feeding the input and a manual bypass valve for circulating without the Rinnai in the loop. Control is just a timer that runs the pump at intervals for a short period. There is no thermostat. The Rinnai fires up when the pump runs due to the flow.”The heating system “buffers nicely,” he adds, and keeps vehicles and tools good and warm, and he likes the arrangement so much he’s repeating it in a new detached garage that he’s building at a new house. “Very simple and requires very little room,” he says.But when the concrete floor has already been poured, this good advice comes too late, Jeffery replies. In fact, Jeffery has a natural gas boiler and PEX radiant heat in a detached garage/shop — too bad he can’t use this approach in the garage. Using a Tankless Water Heater for Space HeatEnergy-Efficient Garage DoorsShould I Insulate My Garage Door?A Stupid — and Illegal — Way to Air Condition Your Garage Q&A: Garage Wall InsulationGreen Basics: Water HeatingGreen Basics: Green Heating OptionsFrom Fine Homebuilding: Heating Options for a Small Home Gas or electric infrared heatersFor temporary heating for a weekend project, Charlie Sullivan suggests an electric infrared (IR) heater, a simple unit with a quartz element and reflector but no fan. “If you want to go all out you can mount those on the ceiling so there’s IR heat everywhere,” he writes, “but you can also get a portable one and just put it where you are working.”IR heaters might be a good solution, Jeffery says, but the goal here is to protect canned goods, not so much provide personal comfort. “So,” he says, “really looking for a low-level ambient heat of air and objects… at low cost.”Dana Dorsett suggests the heating load would probably be about 10,000 Btu/hour, but a 30,000 Btu/h heater might not be too much if the garage were normally at 45° or 50°F and Jeffery wanted to bring the temperature up fairly quickly.“Non-condensing air-delivery gas-burners are going to have a problem at 45°F indoor temps, but a condensing version could work,” he says. “But ceiling or wall-bracket mounted gas radiant heaters don’t have that problem, and would be far more comfortable while the place is still coming up to its temperature, since it is heating the objects in the garage (including the humans) directly, not heating the air first.”These heaters are common in large warehouses, he adds, “since comfort can be achieved at lower temperatures, limiting the comfort shock and shortening the comfort recovery when large doors get opened and closed.” Our expert’s opinionHere’s GBA technical director Peter Yost:I think we all can agree on these points:1. Insulating a garage door can be cheap and easy (either DIY or with one of many commercially available solutions, such as this one), but air-sealing a door is really hard. I checked in with local builder members of the Sustainable Energy Outreach Network and they all agreed that while gasketing between individual door panels and the concrete floor can be done, air sealing at the head of the door and along the side tracks is damn near impossible.2. True radiant heating (not in-floor “radiant”) is the best heating solution for quick response and situations where there is a lot of air leakage.3. Radiant floor heating systems — hydronic or electric — are high mass, not quick to respond at all, and not a good match for situations with lots of air leakage.Jeffery is actually asking for two types of heating: background, steady heat for perishables and intermittent task heating. That is a bit of a tall order. Fast-acting radiant systems are well-suited for the latter because thermal comfort is based largely on the operative temperature (about 50% contribution from air temperature and 50% from mean radiant temperature) and in a garage you can quickly boost the mean radiant and achieve comfort with a reduced air temperature.But that low air temperature and high mean radiant temperature can’t be sustained over long periods of time because delivered radiant heat is inevitably re-expressed as conduction and convection. The air temperature will gradually rise, unless you have a lot of air changes. So while there is greater thermal comfort and efficiency of fast-acting radiant systems for task heating, those advantages don’t translate well for background steady space heating.The bottom line? Insulate and air seal the garage as best you can to minimize what you need to deliver for background steady heat and use fast-acting radiant heat for your tasks. (For more information, see Space Heaters).I would recommend electric ceiling radiant heating panels for these reasons: they provide good, unobstructed “viewing” angles up and out of the way on the ceiling; they’re easy to wire and more panels can be added as needed; and they modulate for both background steady heat and fast-acting radiant task heating.The only drawback may be that their surface operating temperatures (around 165°F) may not lift the mean radiant temperature enough for all tasks in the garage, but you could augment the ceiling panels with a task panel installed on the underside of a shelf above your workbench; the task panels are standard wall plug units. (The ceiling panels are hardwired either for 110 volt or 220 volt service.) Be cautious of benzene threatDonald Endsley points to a concern about attached garages that applies regardless of a heating system: elevated levels of benzene inside the house. “Benzene is a chemical pollutant that basically evaporates from gas and oil stored in the garage, and also enters the garage through unburned hydrocarbons in vehicle exhaust,” he says. “Basically to counteract this the garage needs to be at a lower air pressure than the house is. That means you really need to add a continuous exhaust fan to the garage.”Longterm problems associated with exposure to benzene include anemia, leukemia, and possibly non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma, he says. It’s a known carcinogen with no known safe exposure level.Although he hasn’t confirmed his hunch with any tests, Endsley estimates that a fan moving between 15 and 30 cubic feet per minute would be about right.