Thermal adaptation in the Arctic collembolan Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg)

first_imgEcophysiological characteristics, including survival at high and low temperatures, locomotory activity at sub-zero temperatures, supercooling ability and oxygen consumption rates, were investigated for the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg) (Collembola, Onychiuridae). Individuals had a mean (± SE) fresh weight of 428.2±107.6 μg which contained 74.0±10.2% body water. Survival at high temperatures was humidity dependent. After 3h exposure at 100% relative humidity and 30°C, >80% of the animals survived, but at >32.5°C no individual survived. 70% of the animals survived a 1 h exposure at 32.5°C but at 35.0°C all animals died. At 0% relative humidity there were no survivors after 3 h at >25.0°C. At sub-zero temperatures, 60% of the springtails survived for 84 days at −3.0°C, but at −5.0°C survival was reduced to 35%. Individual collembolans showed locomotor activity down to −4°C. O. arcticus was freezing-intolerant and individuals supercooled to −6.1±0.1°C before freezing. This relatively high mean (±SE) supercooling point was stable throughout summer and was unaffected by acclimation temperature. A non-linear relationship existed between oxygen consumption and temperature. Between 0 and 10°C the Q10 was high at 7.0. It declined to 1.6 over the temperature range 10 to 30°C, increasing to 5.8 at higher temperatures. O. arcticus possesses ecophysiological characteristics suited to life in the upper layer of soil and surface vegetation, and beneath snow cover. However, it appears to be poorly adapted to survive severe winter temperatures being intolerant of freezing and with little supercooling ability. Such features may restrict its present distribution in the Arctic, but it seems likely that it would benefit by an increase in environmental temperature.last_img read more

Middlebury Unplugged energy-saving event Thursday

first_imgOn October 22, 2009 the Vermont Community Foundation will host a Kick-Off event for Middlebury Unplugged, an energy challenge for downtown Middlebury businesses. The Kick-Off, open to the public, will begin at 7:30 a.m. and will offer energy-saving tips to local business and residential home owners. At the end of the event, Middlebury Unplugged coordinators will hand out energy monitors and data-logging software to businesses, so that they can track their electrical usage in real time at no cost.The energy challenge will be a three-month competition among fifteen Middlebury businesses to see who can reduce their utility bill by the greatest percentage. The Vermont Community Foundation will fund the project with a grant from the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, matched by a smaller grant from the Community Foundation, and will oversee the competition in partnership with Central Vermont Public Service, Efficiency Vermont, Middlebury College, and Middlebury Area Global Warming Action Coalition (MAGWAC).“We’re excited about this project,” says President and CEO Stuart Comstock-Gay. “It’s a chance for all of us in Middlebury to challenge ourselves about our energy use, and to start learning how to live in a new energy reality.“The energy monitors come with display units that will be placed prominently on the cashier counters at all participating businesses, so that customers can follow the progress of their favorite stores throughout the competition. Local residents can also check out the businesses and read up-to-date information online at the Middlebury Unplugged Website, is external) more information on the Vermont Agency of Natural Resource’s Vermont Community Climate Change Grant Program that funded this project, please visit is external)The Vermont Community Foundation (VCF) helps individuals, organizations, and businesses cultivate their love of giving through opportunities to learn, lead, and grow as philanthropists. The VCF has more than 500 charitable funds, each of which was established to build healthy and vital Vermont communities. In addition, the VCF offers planned giving, nonprofit agency endowment management, and other services that help charitable partners achieve their missions.###last_img read more

U.S. Southern Command Holds 2017 Annual Chaplain Symposium in Guatemala

first_imgBy Jennyfer Hernández/Diálogo August 31, 2017 Bendiciones para esta clase de Conferencia, ojalá que existiera más e invitar a Especialistas para participar.Bendiciones al Coronel de León Guatemala was the site of U.S. Southern Command’s (SOUTHCOM) 2017 Annual Chaplain Symposium, held August 1st to 3rd, where the topic of “The Impact of Faith in the Armed Forces” was addressed. For three days the spiritual leaders interacted during workshops, forums, and talks that allowed them to study the importance of religion for each service member. This event offered the military chaplains, assistant chaplains, and other clergy information, language, global perspective, and views on religion’s essential role in the militaries of North, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean. Colonel Oscar Jacobo de León, the chief of Chaplain Services for the Guatemalan Army and one of the hosts, welcomed each of the representatives from partner nations, reaffirming to them that one of the most important missions of the Army High Command is the welfare of its service members and that spiritual support is part of that welfare. “If a soldier is searching for God, he will be more productive in his work and in his service, and will improve his family relationships, friendships, and society at large,” Col. De León stated, indicating that 56 percent of service members in the Guatemalan Army are Catholic and 44 percent are evangelical Christians. “Those of us in chaplain services must work on the soldier’s soul so that it reflects his peace and his love on the outside. Those unseen actions, faith, and a clear conscience are what we need to be working on, and our work is precisely that,” he added. U.S. Air Force Colonel Greg Woodbury, Jr., the SOUTHCOM chaplain and co-host, indicated that the symposium was being held in order to forge relationships with other leaders and, above all, to emphasize that spirituality is an important part of life. He said the intent was to look for solutions to service members’ personal problems. “We believe that God created us, and we need to have a relationship with him. We’re here to discuss ways of helping people, not only within the military but also sharing that help with all those around us,” he stated. Talks and lectures Various topics were covered on the first day of talks. Among them was “Faith Works,” given by Major General Dondi Costin, the chief of chaplains for the U.S. Air Force, and by the chaplain’s assistant, U.S. Air Force Chief Master Sergeant Dale McGavran. They were followed by retired Guatemalan Army General José Luis Barrientos Paau, who spoke about how to bring God and faith into military culture. In 1996, Gen. Barrientos gave his thesis on the importance of chaplain services, and he shared how to help service members get this type of support. During his talk, he noted how service members experience certain difficulties in their lives, such as prolonged separation from their families, the death of their fellow privates, injuries, and even how to resist temptation during their military service. “We need to incorporate God into the armed forces and spiritual strength within military culture. Times are changing but human beings are still the same. That’s why faith must be reaffirmed, not only among the institutions of the army but also throughout society,” Gen. Barrientos said. During the event, the topic of suicide and how to prevent it was covered. According to the clergy, this is a topic that their service members frequently present. They also sought solutions and the correct mechanism for chaplains to provide support as facilitators, caregivers, and advisors to service members. Monsignor Adalberto Martínez Flores, the bishop of the Paraguayan Armed Forces and National Police, expressed his gratitude to SOUTHCOM for having been able to talk about faith and strengthen religious convictions in the region, above all, in countries like Paraguay, where 85 percent of residents profess the Catholic faith and where the population is relatively young. “Most men and women in uniform come in without any sense of faith in their lives, and it is through the work of chaplains that we have been able to create conviction with God and with our service members,” he said. Colombian military Bishop Fabio Suescún Mutis, who participated in the event for the fourth time, said that these exchanges of ideas enrich every one of the religious leaders present. “We’ve overcome 50 years of armed conflict, and these have been very difficult situations for our personnel. This requires help, solidarity and, above all, support through the presence of God to keep families from falling apart,” Suescún said. “Giving everything for your country while continuing to have peace in your soul is very hard if you lack spiritual support. That’s what we’re here for, to share our experiences with the rest of our neighboring countries.” A symbolic act was made during the closing ceremony in which the Guatemalan hosts passed the baton to Jamaica, which will host the leaders again in order to continue God’s mission in the armed forces.last_img read more

Slough matches Brixton NAV rise

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Trojans accept invitation to the Sun Bowl in El Paso

first_imgUSC will be spending New Year’s Eve in El Paso, Texas.On Sunday, the Trojans (7-5, 5-4) accepted a bid to the Sun Bowl as the representative of the Pac-12 against Georgia Tech of the ACC. The Yellow Jackets, who finished 6-7 on the season following Saturday’s 21-15 loss to Florida State in the ACC championship game, were granted a waiver by the NCAA to obtain bowl eligibility despite finishing under .500.“After not being in a bowl the past two years, we look forward to playing in a bowl with the tradition of the Sun Bowl,” USC coach Lane Kiffin said in a statement. “Georgia Tech is a very well-coached team and will present a challenge on both sides of the ball, especially with their great ability to run the ball.”Beginning in 1935, the Sun Bowl stands as the nation’s second-oldest bowl game behind the Rose Bowl and is held annually on Dec. 31, typically pitting teams from the Pac-12 and ACC.Because of NCAA sanctions that included a two-year postseason ban, this marks the Trojans’ first bowl appearance since the 2009 season, when they defeated Boston College 24-13 in the Emerald Bowl.USC has played in the Sun Bowl on two occasions, first in 1990 when USC lost to Michigan State 17-16 and most recently in 1998, when the Trojans lost 28-19 to TCU during then-coach Paul Hackett’s first season with the program.The Yellow Jackets and the Trojans will meet for the first time since 1973. Once the Associated Press’ preseason No. 1 team, USC stumbled five times in 2012, including three times in its final four games and losses to rivals UCLA and Notre Dame.“Although our season didn’t go as well as we hoped, we appreciate the opportunity we now have to play another game and attempt to go out on a winning note,” Kiffin said.Kiffin also said Sunday night that he anticipates senior quarterback Matt Barkley, who missed the regular season finale against the Fighting Irish, will play in the game.Kickoff is scheduled for 11 a.m. and will be televised by CBS.last_img read more

NFL draft looms for pair of star Trojans

first_img“Leveling the Playing Field” ran every Friday. If you would like to comment on this story, visit or email Sean at [email protected] To me, awaiting word on whether USC will play in the Holiday Bowl or Sun Bowl carries about as much intrigue as the Chevron car races we’re forced to watch at every football and basketball game. Frankly, I don’t care, although it is entertaining to watch people go bonkers when the fire truck wins.I’ll tune into the game and cheer for the outgoing seniors to finish strong, but the bowl game’s outcome will bear far less significance on the program’s future than another winter event: the Jan. 15 deadline for underclassmen to declare for the 2013 NFL draft, held in late April.Much like last season when core USC juniors Matt Barkley, T.J. McDonald, Matt Kalil and Nick Perry faced the decision to fast-track or postpone their NFL dreams, two standout underclassmen are currently entertaining the thought of departing a year early.Wide receiver Robert Woods and cornerback Nickell Robey will likely soon submit requests for NFL scout evaluations in hopes of gaining industry feedback on where they can expect to be drafted after this season.Recent chatter indicates that Woods is leaning ever so slightly toward returning for his senior year and Robey is almost a certified lock to turn pro.Though neither player asked for — nor needs — my advice, I’ll offer my two cents anyway: I think they have it wrong; it’s in Woods’ best interests to go and Robey’s to stay.Woods’ desire to play a full four-year career and complete his degree upholds the integrity of the “student-athlete” term and should be commended.But I would caution Woods that the risk of returning greatly exceeds the reward.USC’s all-time receptions leader saw his draft stock dip from probable top-10 selection before the season to a possible mid- to late-first round pick in 2013, according to various draft experts. Naturally, some assume that Woods wishes to rebound next season and re-assume his top-prospect mantle.But several realities complicate that logic.First, getting drafted in the first round versus the second round makes a big financial difference, and for Woods to hazard slipping even further makes little financial sense.In 2012, former Baylor wide receiver Kendall Wright received a four-year, $8.2 million contract as the 20th overall pick. Compare that figure to Chicago Bears wide receiver Alshon Jeffery’s four-year, $4.52 million contract, which Jeffery earned as the No. 45 overall pick in the second round. Incredibly, Wright received almost double Jeffery’s contract for getting picked a mere 25 spots ahead of the former Gamecock.Second, wide receivers invite a lot of contact and often do not enjoy the career longevity of their counterparts at other positions. But even assuming Woods avoids injury, there’s no guarantee his numbers will improve next season, especially with a rookie quarterback at the helm.Given all the flak USC coach Lane Kiffin received for his predictable and unbalanced play-calling, you can expect to see the Trojans run the ball more often and distribute passes more evenly across their embarrassment of riches at tight end and receiver. Rising junior wide receiver Marqise Lee will almost assuredly continue to overshadow Woods and get drafted ahead of his Gardena Serra teammate in 2014 should he elect to leave early. Not to mention rising sophomore and third receiver Nelson Agholor, as a budding deep threat and game-breaker, will also deserve more targets.As a result, there appears to be little opportunity for Woods to improve upon his current draft projection by returning for another season.Curiously enough, many will offer that same argument for Robey: No matter how well he plays in 2013, he won’t get drafted any higher.Yet, I tend to disagree. Right now, various draft experts rank Robey anywhere between No. 7 and No. 15 among draft eligible cornerbacks, earning him a third round grade. Since most questions about Robey’s NFL potential center around his diminutive 5-foot-8, 165-pound frame and not his play, there’s not much he can do — except experience a growth spurt — to improve his stock, experts argue.But Robey has yet to maximize his potential and become the Pac-12’s best cornerback. On Monday, the Pac-12 announced its all-conference teams, and Robey checked in on the second team behind three first-team cornerbacks: Oregon’s Ifo Ekpre-Olomu, Oregon State’s Jordan Poyer and Washington’s Desmond Trufant.Though making the Pac-12’s second team shouldn’t be discounted, Robey’s talent should unquestionably rank him as the conference’s best. For most of the season’s first half, opposing quarterbacks didn’t even bother scrutinizing Robey’s coverage zone, expecting the Florida native to blanket whichever receiver lined up opposite him. But ever since offenses began routinely torching the Trojans’ defense, opposing quarterbacks have started to attack Robey almost as relentlessly as they take advantage of much-maligned junior Torin Harris and sophomore Josh Shaw, who, to be fair, is really a safety masquerading as a cornerback because of depth issues.If Robey returns to lock down the Pac-12’s best receivers for an entire season, while also flashing more explosiveness on punt returns, his resume would then boast the following: four-year starter, three-time all-Pac-12 performer and two-year captain. In that scenario, it’s not difficult to imagine some team taking a flier on him in the second round.Undoubtedly, Woods and Robey belong to that rare breed of college football stars who stormed into a national powerhouse’s program as true freshmen, wrested control of a starting position and never made their coaches think twice about re-opening their spots for competition.The fact that they matched the greatness of their on-field play with infallible character off the field only endears them to USC fans that much more.No matter what happens, the Trojan faithful should support Woods and Robey’s decisions. That doesn’t mean, however, that the recruiting class of 2010 standouts don’t clearly have choices that would better serve their professional interests.last_img read more